Can Zakat be Used to Buy a Charity Cake in Auction?

cake

Question:

Can Zakat be used to buy a charity cake?

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The Answer:

Zakat cannot be used to purchase a cake being auctioned for charity.

The Fiqh (jurisprudence of the Answer):

Tamlik (transferral of ownership) of Zakat without a counter-exchange to an eligible recipient is one of the universal conditions for Zakat to be valid.  In the question posed, Zakat is not being dispensed unilaterally in the ownership of an eligible recipient, rather, the money is transacted in a bilateral transaction.  An auction is a sale and a bilateral transaction.[1] 

And Allah Ta’ālā Alone Knows Best

Mufti Faraz Adam al-Mahmudi,
www.darulfiqh.com

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[1] دَفَعَ الزَّكَاةَ إلَى صِبْيَانِ أَقَارِبِهِ بِرَسْمِ عِيدٍ أَوْ إلَى مُبَشِّرٍ أَوْ مُهْدِي الْبَاكُورَةِ جَازَ إلَّا إذَا نَصَّ عَلَى التَّعْوِيضِ

(قَوْلُهُ: إلَى صِبْيَانِ أَقَارِبِهِ) أَيْ الْعُقَلَاءِ وَإِلَّا فَلَا يَصِحُّ إلَّا بِالدَّفْعِ إلَى وَلِيِّ الصَّغِيرِ (قَوْلُهُ: بِرَسْمِ عِيدٍ) أَيْ عَادَةِ عِيدٍ ح (قَوْلُهُ: أَوْ مُهْدِي الْبَاكُورَةِ) هِيَ الثَّمَرَةُ الَّتِي تُدْرِكُ أَوَّلًا قَامُوسٌ، وَقَيَّدَهُ فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة بِاَلَّتِي لَا تُسَاوِي شَيْئًا، وَمَفْهُومُهُ أَنَّهَا لَوْ لَهَا قِيمَةٌ لَمْ يَصِحَّ عَنْ الزَّكَاةِ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُهْدِيَ لَمْ يَدْفَعْهَا إلَّا لِلْعِوَضِ فَلَا يَجُوزُ أَخْذُهَا إلَّا بِدَفْعِ مَا يَرْضَى بِهِ الْمُهْدِي وَالزَّائِدُ عَلَيْهِ يَصِحُّ عَنْ الزَّكَاةِ.

ثُمَّ رَأَيْت ط ذَكَرَ مِثْلَهُ وَزَادَ إلَّا أَنْ يُنَزَّلَ الْمُهْدِي مَنْزِلَةَ الْوَاهِبِ اهـ أَيْ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَمْ يَقْصِدْ بِهَا أَخْذَ الْعِوَضِ وَإِنَّمَا جَعَلَهُ وَسِيلَةً لِلصَّدَقَةِ فَهُوَ مُتَبَرِّعٌ بِمَا دَفَعَ وَلِذَا لَا يُعَدُّ مَا يَأْخُذُهُ عِوَضًا عَنْهَا بَلْ صَدَقَةٌ لَكِنَّ الْآخِذَ لَوْ لَمْ يُعْطِهِ شَيْئًا لَا يَرْضَى بِتَرْكِهَا لَهُ فَلَا يَحِلُّ لَهُ أَخْذُهَا وَاَلَّذِي يَظْهَرُ أَنَّهُ لَوْ نَوَى بِمَا دَفَعَهُ الزَّكَاةَ صَحَّتْ نِيَّتُهُ وَلَا تَبْقَى ذِمَّتُهُ مَشْغُولَةً بِقَدْرِ قِيمَتِهَا أَوْ أَكْثَرَ إذَا كَانَ لَهَا قِيمَةٌ؛ لِأَنَّ الْمُهْدِيَ وَصَلَ إلَى غَرَضِهِ مِنْ الْهِدَايَةِ، سَوَاءٌ كَانَ مَا أَخَذَهُ زَكَاةً أَوْ صَدَقَةً نَافِلَةً وَيَكُونُ حِينَئِذٍ رَاضِيًا بِتَرْكِ الْهَدِيَّةِ فَلْيُتَأَمَّلْ.

(قَوْلُهُ إذَا نَصَّ عَلَى التَّعْوِيضِ) يَنْبَغِي أَنْ يَكُونَ مَبْنِيًّا عَلَى الْقَوْلِ بِأَنَّهُ إذَا سَمَّى الزَّكَاةَ قَرْضًا لَا تَصِحُّ وَتَقَدَّمَ أَنَّ الْمُعْتَمَدَ خِلَافُهُ، وَعَلَيْهِ فَيَنْبَغِي أَنَّهُ إذَا نَوَاهَا صَحَّتْ وَإِنْ نَصَّ عَلَى التَّعْوِيضِ إلَّا أَنْ يُقَالَ إذَا نَصَّ عَلَى التَّعْوِيضِ يَصِيرُ عَقْدَ مُعَاوَضَةٍ وَالْمَلْحُوظُ إلَيْهِ فِي الْعُقُودِ هُوَ الْأَلْفَاظُ دُونَ النِّيَّةِ الْمُجَرَّدَةِ وَالصَّدَقَةُ تُسَمَّى قَرْضًا مَجَازًا مَشْهُورٌ فِي الْقُرْآنِ الْعَظِيمِ فَيَصِحُّ إطْلَاقُهُ عَلَيْهَا بِخِلَافِ لَفْظِ الْعِوَضِ إذْ لَا عَمَلَ لِلنِّيَّةِ الْمُجَرَّدَةِ مَعَ اللَّفْظِ الْغَيْرِ الصَّالِحِ لَهَا وَلِذَا فَصَّلَ بَعْضُهُمْ فَقَالَ: إنْ تَأَوَّلَ الْقَرْضَ بِالزَّكَاةِ جَازَ وَإِلَّا فَلَا تَأَمَّلْ (حاشية ابن عابدين ج 2 ص 356)

Fatawa Rahimiyyah 7/186 Dar al-Ishaat

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