Is it permissible to pay Zakat in installments?

zakat installment

Question:

Is it permissible to pay Zakat in installments?

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The Answer:

The payment of Zakat is binding on one’s Zakat anniversary.  To delay paying Zakat without a reasonable and genuine excuse is blameworthy[1].

If it is genuinely difficult to pay Zakat in lump sum, one may pay Zakat in advance for the following year in instalments.  For example, one can start paying Zakat monthly from Shawwal 1437AH for the Zakat payment due in Ramadhan 1438AH.

A person usually has an idea of how much Zakat they pay yearly, they can use that amount as a proxy and divide that amount across the months and pay Zakat in monthly installments.  When one’s Zakat anniversary arrives, one should check whether the paid amount offsets the total amount due.  If there is a shortfall, one must make up difference.

However, some contemporary senior Muftis like Mufti Mahmudul Hasan rahimahullah, Mufti Khalid Saifullah, Mufti Radha al-Haqq and Mufti Salman Mansurpuri have permitted paying in installments in arrears if one cannot pay in lump sum on the Zakat anniversary.  The inability to pay the total Zakat due is a genuine reason to delay paying the full amount and thus, one may pay in installments for the previous Zakat anniversary in arrears.  Mufti Mahmudul Hasan rahimahullah adds that one should clear off the outstanding Zakat balance before the passing of a lunar year[3].

Paying Zakat in advance is accepted in the Hanafi school and considered sinless, whereas, paying in arrears although legally valid, has a potential of blame if there is no reasonable excuse for the delay.  Thus, paying in advance when difficult to pay in lump sum would be ideal, however, one also has the option and discretion of paying in arrears as stated by the Muftis above.  

 

And Allah Ta’ālā Alone Knows Best

Mufti Faraz Adam al-Mahmudi,
www.darulfiqh.com 

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[1] (وَافْتِرَاضُهَا عُمْرِيٌّ) أَيْ عَلَى التَّرَاخِي وَصَحَّحَهُ الْبَاقَانِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ (وَقِيلَ فَوْرِيٌّ) أَيْ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى الْفَوْرِ (وَعَلَيْهِ الْفَتْوَى) كَمَا فِي شَرْحِ الْوَهْبَانِيَّةِ

(قَوْلُهُ وَافْتِرَاضُهَا عُمْرِيٌّ) قَالَ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَعَلَيْهِ عَامَّةُ الْمَشَايِخِ، فَفِي أَيِّ وَقْتٍ أَدَّى يَكُونُ مُؤَدِّيًا لِلْوَاجِبِ، وَيَتَعَيَّنُ ذَلِكَ الْوَقْتُ لِلْوُجُوبِ، وَإِذَا لَمْ يُؤَدِّ إلَى آخِرِ عُمْرِهِ يَتَضَيَّقُ عَلَيْهِ الْوُجُوبُ، حَتَّى لَوْ لَمْ يُؤَدِّ حَتَّى مَاتَ يَأْثَمُ وَاسْتَدَلَّ الْجَصَّاصُ لَهُ بِمَنْ عَلَيْهِ الزَّكَاةُ إذَا هَلَكَ نِصَابُهُ بَعْدَ تَمَامِ الْحَوْلِ وَالتَّمَكُّنِ مِنْ الْأَدَاءِ أَنَّهُ لَا يَضْمَنُ، وَلَوْ كَانَتْ عَلَى الْفَوْرِ يَضْمَنُ كَمَنْ أَخَّرَ صَوْمَ شَهْرِ رَمَضَانَ عَنْ وَقْتِهِ فَإِنَّ عَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءَ.

(قَوْلُهُ وَصَحَّحَهُ الْبَاقَانِيُّ وَغَيْرُهُ) نُقِلَ تَصْحِيحُهُ فِي التَّتَارْخَانِيَّة أَيْضًا (قَوْلُهُ أَيْ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى الْفَوْرِ) هَذَا سَاقِطٌ مِنْ بَعْضِ النُّسَخِ، وَفِيهِ رَكَاكَةٌ لِأَنَّهُ يَئُولَ إلَى قَوْلِنَا: افْتِرَاضُهَا وَاجِبٌ عَلَى الْفَوْرِ مَعَ أَنَّهَا فَرِيضَةٌ مُحْكَمَةٌ بِالدَّلَائِلِ الْقَطْعِيَّةِ.

وَقَدْ يُقَالُ: إنَّ قَوْلَهُ افْتِرَاضُهَا عَلَى تَقْدِيرِ مُضَافٍ أَيْ افْتِرَاضُ أَدَائِهَا، وَهُوَ مِنْ إضَافَةِ الصِّفَةِ إلَى مَوْصُوفِهَا فَيَصِيرُ الْمَعْنَى أَدَاؤُهَا الْمُفْتَرَضُ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى الْفَوْرِ: أَيْ أَنَّ أَصْلَ الْأَدَاءِ فَرْضٌ، وَكَوْنُهُ عَلَى الْفَوْرِ وَاجِبٌ، وَهَذَا مَا حَقَّقَهُ فِي فَتْحِ الْقَدِيرِ مِنْ أَنَّ الْمُخْتَارَ فِي الْأُصُولِ أَنَّ مُطْلَقَ الْأَمْرِ لَا يَقْتَضِي الْفَوْرَ وَلَا التَّرَاخِيَ بَلْ مُجَرَّدَ الطَّلَبِ فَيَجُوزُ لِلْمُكَلَّفِ كُلٌّ مِنْهُمَا لَكِنَّ الْأَمْرَ هُنَا مَعَهُ قَرِينَةُ الْفَوْرِ إلَخْ مَا يَأْتِي (قَوْلُهُ فَيَأْثَمُ بِتَأْخِيرِهَا إلَخْ) ظَاهِرُهُ الْإِثْمُ بِالتَّأْخِيرِ وَلَوْ قَلَّ كَيَوْمٍ أَوْ يَوْمَيْنِ لِأَنَّهُمْ فَسَّرُوا الْفَوْرَ بِأَوَّلِ أَوْقَاتِ الْإِمْكَانِ. وَقَدْ يُقَالُ الْمُرَادُ أَنْ لَا يُؤَخِّرَ إلَى الْعَامِ الْقَابِلِ لِمَا فِي الْبَدَائِعِ عَنْ الْمُنْتَقَى بِالنُّونِ إذَا لَمْ يُؤَدِّ حَتَّى مَضَى حَوْلَانِ فَقَدْ أَسَاءَ وَأَثِمَ اهـ فَتَأَمَّلْ (قَوْلُهُ: وَهِيَ) أَيْ الْقَرِينَةُ أَنَّهُ أَيْ الْأَمْرَ بِالصَّرْفِ (قَوْلُهُ وَهِيَ مُعَجَّلَةٌ) كَذَا عِبَارَةُ الْفَتْحِ. أَيْ حَاجَةُ الْفَقِيرِ مُعَجَّلَةٌ أَيْ حَاصِلَةٌ (قَوْلُهُ: وَتَمَامُهُ فِي الْفَتْحِ) حَيْثُ قَالَ بَعْدَ مَا مَرَّ: فَتَكُونُ الزَّكَاةُ فَرِيضَةً وَفَوْرِيَّتُهَا وَاجِبَةٌ فَيَلْزَمُ بِتَأْخِيرِهِ مِنْ غَيْرِ ضَرُورَةٍ الْإِثْمُ كَمَا صَرَّحَ بِهِ الْكَرْخِيُّ وَالْحَاكِمُ الشَّهِيدُ فِي الْمُنْتَقَى؛ وَهُوَ عَيْنُ مَا ذَكَرَهُ الْإِمَامُ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ عَنْ أَبِي حَنِيفَةَ أَنَّهُ يُكْرَهُ، فَإِنَّ كَرَاهَةَ التَّحْرِيمِ هِيَ الْمَحْمَلُ عِنْدَ إطْلَاقِ اسْمِهَا، وَقَدْ ثَبَتَ عَنْ أَئِمَّتِنَا الثَّلَاثَةِ وُجُوبُ فَوْرِيَّتُهَا، وَمَا نَقَلَهُ ابْنُ شُجَاعٍ عَنْهُمْ مِنْ أَنَّهَا عَلَيَّ التَّرَاخِي فَهُوَ بِالنَّظَرِ إلَى دَلِيلِ الِافْتِرَاضِ أَيْ: دَلِيلُ الِافْتِرَاضِ لَا يُوجِبُهَا، وَهُوَ لَا يَنْفِي وُجُودَ دَلِيلِ الْإِيجَابِ. وَعَلَى هَذَا قَوْلُهُمْ: إذَا شَكَّ هَلْ زَكَّى أَوْ لَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ أَنْ يُزَكِّيَ لِأَنَّ وَقْتَهَا الْعُمْرُ، فَالشَّكُّ حِينَئِذٍ كَالشَّكِّ فِي الصَّلَاةِ فِي الْوَقْتِ اهـ مُلَخَّصًا. (حاشية ابن عابدين ج 2 ص 271-272 أيج أيم سعيد)

[3] Fatawa Mahmudiyyah 9/468 Idaratul Faruq

Kitabul Fatawa 3/323 Dar al-Isha’at

Fatawa Darul Uloom Zakariyya 3/172 Zamzam Publishers

Kitabun Nawazil 6/546 al-Markaz al-ilmi

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