Is Qurbani necessary for a young teenager with a Child Trust Fund but no other funds?

CTF qurbani

Question:

Is Qurbani necessary for a young teenager with a Child Trust Fund but no other funds?

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The Answer:

Non-withdrawable and inaccessible Investments do not form part of one’s Niṣāb for Qurbānī. Therefore, despite owning funds in a Child Trust Fund, if the mature child has no other funds equalling the Niṣāb, Qurbānī is not necessary.

Note: One should ensure that the Child Trust Fund is Shariah compliant.

The Fiqh (jurisprudence of the answer):

Qurbāni has a specified time of 3 days (10th, 11th, 12th Dhul Hijjah). Hence, if a person does not have the financial capacity and funds to perform a Qurbānī in the three days of Naḥr (sacrifice) despite having inaccessible money, Qurbāni will not be compulsory.

For Qurbānī to be binding, one of the underlying conditions is Ghinā, which refers to the ownership of funds equalling the Niṣāb and having access to the funds[1]. When funds are locked away in an investment whereby they cannot be accessed at all in the days of Naḥr, the person in question will not have Ghinā[2].

The justice and consideration of Shariah becomes vivid in the above ruling. A person who has money but cannot access it will not be burdened to somehow acquire funds to do a financial worship which is restricted to three days.

And Allah Ta’ālā Alone Knows Best

Mufti Faraz Adam,
www.darulfiqh.com

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[1]  وَمِنْهَا الْغِنَى لِمَا رُوِيَ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «مَنْ وَجَدَ سَعَةً فَلْيُضَحِّ» شَرَطَ – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – السَّعَةَ وَهِيَ الْغِنَى وَلِأَنَّا أَوْجَبْنَاهَا بِمُطْلَقِ الْمَالِ وَمِنْ الْجَائِزِ أَنْ يَسْتَغْرِقَ الْوَاجِبُ جَمِيعَ مَالِهِ فَيُؤَدِّي إلَى الْحَرَجِ فَلَا بُدَّ مِنْ اعْتِبَارِ الْغِنَى وَهُوَ أَنْ يَكُونَ فِي مِلْكِهِ مِائَتَا دِرْهَمٍ أَوْ عِشْرُونَ دِينَارًا أَوْ شَيْءٌ تَبْلُغُ قِيمَتُهُ ذَلِكَ سِوَى مَسْكَنِهِ وَمَا يَتَأَثَّثُ بِهِ وَكِسْوَتِهِ وَخَادِمِهِ وَفَرَسِهِ وَسِلَاحِهِ وَمَا لَا يَسْتَغْنِي عَنْهُ وَهُوَ نِصَابُ صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ، وَقَدْ ذَكَرْنَاهُ وَمَا يَتَّصِلُ بِهِ مِنْ الْمَسَائِلِ فِي صَدَقَةِ الْفِطْرِ.

وَلَوْ كَانَ عَلَيْهِ دَيْنٌ بِحَيْثُ لَوْ صَرَفَ إلَيْهِ بَعْضَ نِصَابِهِ لَا يَنْقُصُ نِصَابُهُ لَا تَجِبُ لِأَنَّ الدَّيْنَ يَمْنَعُ وُجُوبَ الزَّكَاةِ فَلَأَنْ يَمْنَعَ وُجُوبَ الْأُضْحِيَّةَ أَوْلَى؛ لِأَنَّ الزَّكَاةَ فَرْضٌ وَالْأُضْحِيَّةَ وَاجِبَةٌ وَالْفَرْضُ فَوْقَ الْوَاجِبِ.

وَكَذَا لَوْ كَانَ لَهُ مَالٌ غَائِبٌ لَا يَصِلُ إلَيْهِ فِي أَيَّامِ النَّحْرِ لِأَنَّهُ فَقِيرٌ وَقْتَ غَيْبَةِ الْمَالِ حَتَّى تَحِلَّ لَهُ الصَّدَقَةُ بِخِلَافِ الزَّكَاةِ فَإِنَّهَا تَجِبُ عَلَيْهِ؛ لِأَنَّ جَمِيعَ الْعُمُرِ وَقْتُ الزَّكَاةِ وَهَذِهِ قُرْبَةٌ مُوَقَّتَةٌ فَيُعْتَبَرُ الْغِنَى فِي وَقْتِهَا وَلَا يُشْتَرَطُ أَنْ يَكُونَ غَنِيًّا فِي جَمِيعِ الْوَقْتِ (بدائع الصنائع ج 5 ص 64 ط دار الكتب)

[2]  أحسن الفتاوى ج 7 ص 512 ط سعيد

الفتاوى التاتارخانية ج 17 ص 410

له ديون مؤجلة وليس عنده ما يشتريها به لا تلزم

له على مقر مفلس دين لا تلزم ما لم يصل إليه

له دين حال على مقر مليء وليس عنده ما يشتريها به لا يلزم الاستقراض ولا قيمة الأضحية إذا وصل إليه الدين ولكن يلزمه أن يسأل منه ثمن الأضحية إذا غلب على ظنه أنه يعطيه

له مال كثير غائب في يد مضاربه أو شريكه ومعه من الحجرين أو متاع البيت ما يشتري به الأضحية تلزم (الفتاوى البزازية)

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