What is the ruling of taking fully comprehensive insurance?

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Question:

What is the ruling of taking fully comprehensive insurance?

Answer:

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

The default rule with regards to car insurance is that it is not permissible.  Insurance schemes consist of multiple defective and impermissible elements such as interest, gambling (qimār), uncertainty (gharar) etc.

However, car insurance policies are a legal requirement in many countries.  One cannot drive a car legally without insurance.  One’s right to drive a car is contingent upon an insurance policy.  In other words, insurance is a necessity to obtain one’s lawful right.  When car insurance is a legal requirement, car insurance is permitted to rightfully entitle oneself to a right and ward off injustice to oneself.[1]  

Keeping the above in mind, if the requirements of the law are fulfilled by acquiring Third Party insurance which incurs less payable premiums than other levels of cover, then it is not permissible to acquire Fully Comprehensive car cover.  One has obtained his right by paying this amount and anything over and above this will be impermissible.[2]

If for some reason Third Party insurance results in higher premium payments than the other forms of car insurance, namely Third Party Fire and Theft or Fully Comprehensive, then it is permissible to take the cheaper cover even though it may be Fully comprehensive or Third Party Fire and Theft.  To opt to pay more and acquire a higher cover when one has obtained his right and warded of injustice from himself will be impermissible.

In conclusion, it is only permissible to pay for the cheapest policy in order to acquire one’s right.

 

And Allah Ta’ālā Knows Best

Mufti Faraz al-Mahmudi,

Darul Iftaa

Dublin, Ireland
www.darulfiqh.com

 


[1]  الرَّابِعُ: مَا يَدْفَعُ لِدَفْعِ الْخَوْفِ مِنْ الْمَدْفُوعِ إلَيْهِ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ أَوْ مَالِهِ حَلَالٌ لِلدَّافِعِ حَرَامٌ عَلَى الْآخِذِ؛ لِأَنَّ دَفْعَ الضَّرَرِ عَنْ الْمُسْلِمِ وَاجِبٌ وَلَا يَجُوزُ أَخْذُ الْمَالِ لِيَفْعَلَ الْوَاجِبَ، اهـ مَا فِي الْفَتْحِ مُلَخَّصًا. وَفِي الْقُنْيَةِ الرِّشْوَةُ يَجِبُ رَدُّهَا وَلَا تُمْلَكُ وَفِيهَا دَفَعَ لِلْقَاضِي أَوْ لِغَيْرِهِ سُحْتًا لِإِصْلَاحِ الْمُهِمِّ فَأَصْلَحَ ثُمَّ نَدِمَ يَرُدُّ مَا دُفِعَ إلَيْهِ اهـ، (رد المحتار ج 5 ص 362 أيج أيم سعيد)

الْهَدِيَّةُ مَالٌ يُعْطِيهِ وَلَا يَكُونُ مَعَهُ شَرْطٌ وَالرِّشْوَةُ مَالٌ يُعْطِيهِ بِشَرْطِ أَنْ يُعِينَهُ كَذَا فِي خِزَانَةِ الْمُفْتِينَ.(الهندية ج 3 ص 330 الرشيدية)

[2]  (الْمَادَّةُ 22) :مَا أُبِيحَ لِلضَّرُورَةِ يَتَقَدَّرُ بِقَدْرِهَا.

أَيْ أَنَّ الشَّيْءَ الَّذِي يَجُوزُ بِنَاءً عَلَى الضَّرُورَةِ يَجُوزُ إجْرَاؤُهُ بِالْقَدْرِ الْكَافِي لِإِزَالَةِ تِلْكَ الضَّرُورَةِ فَقَطْ، وَلَا يَجُوزُ اسْتِبَاحَتُهُ أَكْثَرَ مِمَّا تَزُولُ بِهِ الضَّرُورَةُ. (درر الحكام شرح مجلة الأحكام ج 1 ص 38 دار الجيل)

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