Why are dogs bad in Islam?

Question:

Why are dogs bad in Islam?

Answer:

 

In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

 

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

 

All creatures are the creation of Allah Ta῾ālā and deserve the recognition of being a creation of Allah . As much as Muslims detest even the sight of pigs – it is the creation of Allah Ta῾ālā – we cannot inflict pain nor torture the pig.

 

Similarly Allah Ta῾ālā created the dog from among His creation.  This does not mean that we should love the dog. It is perhaps the indoctrination of the Western culture that ‘The dog is Man’s best Friend’. The theory that ‘dogs are very dependent on Human affection’ is a myth – again culture and custom has helped to develop this unnatural behaviour.

 

No creation is ‘bad’ in itself.  It is the actions and traits of a creation which measure its value and worth.  A human is liked for possessing good qualities and disliked for bearing negative traits.  Likewise, animals are liked and disliked for the praiseworthy and blameworthy traits they hold.  Every creation serves a purpose; whether we understand them or not.  Hence, their existence is not in vain.[i]

 

When the Prophet salallahu alaihi wasallam migrated to al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, he initially ordered for all dogs to be killed.  After a while, the Prophet salallahu alaihi wasallam commanded for a specific breed to be killed.  Later on, the Prophet salallahu alaihi wasallam ordered for them not to be killed.[ii]

 

Mulla Ali al-Qari rahimahullah states that the order to kill dogs was specific to al-Madinah al-Munawwarah.[iii] The order was due to a number of reasons:[iv]

 

1)     The dogs in that vicinity were harmful.  Imagine having stray pit-bull terriers roaming around in a village?  Would anyone be safe walking around? It is very common for such dogs to maul infants.  Frequently such dogs are put to sleep across the world.  So for the Prophet salallahu alaihi wasallam to mandate the eradication of these stray and harmful dogs is in fact an administrative issue, which preserves the life and stock of the citizens.

2)     These dogs caused a lot of nuisance to the people.

3)     These dogs were engrossed in filth and impurities.

4)     The angels assigned with revelation do not enter homes where there are such dogs.  Revelation descended in al-Madinah al-Munawwarah and these vicious dogs were very common.  The reason why the angels assigned with revelation do not enter such houses is due to the smell and filth of these dogs.

5)     They did not serve any purpose.

 

It is not permissible now to kill dogs.  The order of the Prophet salallahu alaihi wasallam is abrogated.  However, if there are dogs which are harmful and a threat to humans, it will be permissible to slay them.[v]

 

With regards to the prohibition of keeping dogs as pets, it is due to the hadith of the Prophet salallahu alaihi wasallam,

“Whoever keeps a dog that is not a dog for hunting, herding livestock or farming, two qiraats (an amount) will be deducted from his reward each day.”

 

Imam Nawawi rahimahullah expounding on the above mentioned hadith states that keeping domestic dogs as pets disturbs neighbours, irritates passersby and stains one’s house with excreta and impure saliva.[vi]

 

It is for all these factors Islam has prohibited associating with dogs.  Islam is founded on purity and cleanliness.

 

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

Mawlana Faraz Ibn Adam,
Student Darul Iftaa

UK

 

Checked and Approved by,
Mufti Husain Kadodia.
www.daruliftaa.net

 

 


[i] وفي مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح

فَخَلْقُ كُلِّ جِنْسٍ مِنَ الْمَخْلُوقِينَ لَا يَخْلُو مِنْ حِكْمَةٍ تَقْتَضِيهِ وَمَصْلَحَةٍ تَرْتَضِيهِ، فَلَوْلَا هَذَا (لَأَمَرْتُ بِقَتْلِهَا كُلِّهَا، فَاقْتُلُوا) : جَوَابُ شَرْطٍ مَحْذُوفٍ، فَكَأَنَّهُ قَالَ: فَإِذَا لَمْ يَكُنْ سَبِيلٌ إِلَى قَتْلِ الْكُلِّ لِهَذَا الْمَعْنَى فَاقْتُلُوا (مِنْهَا كُلَّ أَسْوَدَ بَهِيمٍ) : وَابْقُوا مَا سِوَاهُ لِتَنْتَفِعُوا بِهِ فِي الْحِرَاسَةِ وَغَيْرِهَا. وَفِي رِوَايَةٍ: فَاقْتُلُوا مِنْهَا الْأَسْوَدَ الْبَهِيمَ. قَالَ الْخَطَّابِيُّ: مَعْنَى هَذَا الْكَلَامِ أَنَّهُ – صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ – كَرِهَ إِفْنَاءَ أُمَّةٍ مِنَ الْأُمَمِ، وَإِعْدَامَ جِيلٍ مِنَ الْخَلْقِ، لِأَنَّهُ مَا مِنْ خَلْقٍ لِلَّهِ تَعَالَى إِلَّا وَفِيهِ نَوْعٌ مِنَ الْحِكْمَةِ وَضَرْبٌ مِنَ الْمَصْلَحَةِ (ج7 ص 2261 دار الفكر

[ii] وفي تكملة فتح الملهم في موسوعة الفتح الملهم  

والحاصل أنه صلى الله عليه وسلم أمر بقتل الكلاب كلها في مبدإ الأمر ثم خص القتل بالأسود البهيم ثم رخص فيه أيضا (ج 1 ص 504 دار احياء التراث

 

[iii] وفي مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح  

وَعَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ أَمَرَ بِقَتْلِ الْكِلَابِ أَيْ: كُلِّهَا أَوْ كِلَابِ الْمَدِينَةِ، وَهُوَ الْأَظْهَرُ(ج7 ص 2261 دار الفكر

 

[iv] وفي مرقاة المفاتيح شرح مشكاة المصابيح  

قِيلَ فِي تَخْصِيصِ كِلَابِ الْمَدِينَةِ بِالْقَتْلِ مِنْ حَيْثُ إِنَّ الْمَدِينَةَ كَانَتْ مَهْبِطَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ بِالْوَحْيِ، وَهُمْ لَا يَدْخُلُونَ بَيْتًا فِيهِ كَلْبٌ، وَجَعَلَ الْكَلْبَ الْأَسْوَدَ الْبَهِيمَ شَيْطَانًا لِخُبْثِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ أَضُرُّ الْكِلَابِ وَأَعْقَرُهَا، وَالْكَلْبُ أَسْرَعُ إِلَيْهِ مِنْهُ إِلَى جَمِيعِهَا، وَهِيَ مَعَ هَذَا أَقَلُّهَا نَفْعًا، وَأَسَوَؤُهَا حِرَاسَةً، وَأَبْعَدُهَا مِنَ الصَّيْدِ، وَأَكْثَرُهَا نُعَاسًا،

وفي شرح النووي

وَسَبَبُ امْتِنَاعِهِمْ مِنْ بَيْتٍ فِيهِ كَلْبٌ لِكَثْرَةِ أَكْلِهِ النَّجَاسَاتِ وَلِأَنَّ بَعْضَهَا يُسَمَّى شَيْطَانًا كَمَا جَاءَ بِهِ الْحَدِيثُ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ ضِدُّ الشَّيَاطِينِ وَلِقُبْحِ رَائِحَةِ الْكَلْبِ وَالْمَلَائِكَةُ تَكْرَهُ الرَّائِحَةَ الْقَبِيحَةَ وَلِأَنَّهَا مَنْهِيٌّ عَنِ اتِّخَاذِهَا فَعُوقِبَ مُتَّخِذُهَا بِحِرْمَانِهِ دُخُولَ الْمَلَائِكَةِ بَيْتَهُ وَصَلَاتَهَا فِيهِ وَاسْتِغْفَارَهَا لَهُ وَتَبْرِيكَهَا عَلَيْهِ وَفِي بَيْتِهِ ودفعها أذى للشيطان وأما هؤلاء الملائكة لذين لايدخلون بَيْتًا فِيهِ كَلْبٌ أَوْ صُورَةٌ فَهُمْ مَلَائِكَةٌ يطوفون بالرحمة وَالتَّبْرِيكِ وَالِاسْتِغْفَارِ وَأَمَّا الْحَفَظَةُ فَيَدْخُلُونَ فِي كُلَّ بيت ولايفارقون بَنِي آدَمَ فِي كُلِّ حَالٍ لِأَنَّهُمْ مَأْمُورُونَ باحصاء أعمالهم وكتابتها قال الخطابى وانما لاتدخل الْمَلَائِكَةُ بَيْتًا فِيهِ كَلْبٌ أَوْ صُورَةٌ مِمَّا يَحْرُمُ اقْتِنَاؤُهُ مِنَ الْكِلَابِ وَالصُّوَرِ فَأَمَّا مَا لَيْسَ بِحِرَامٍ مِنْ كَلْبِ الصَّيْدِ وَالزَّرْعِ وَالْمَاشِيَةِ وَالصُّورَةِ الَّتِي تُمْتَهَنُ فِي الْبِسَاطِ وَالْوِسَادَةِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا فَلَا يَمْتَنِعُ دُخُولُ الْمَلَائِكَةِ بِسَبَبِهِ (ج7 ص 2261 دار الفكر

 

[v] وفي رد المحتار  

لَكِنْ لَا يَحِلُّ قَتْلُ مَا لَا يُؤْذِي ، وَلِذَا قَالُوا لَمْ يَحِلَّ قَتْلُ الْكَلْبِ الْأَهْلِيِّ إذَا لَمْ يُؤْذِ وَالْأَمْرُ بِقَتْلِ الْكِلَابِ مَنْسُوخٌ كَمَا فِي الْفَتْحِ : أَيْ إذَا لَمْ تَضُرَّ (ج 8 ص 481 أيج ايم سعيد

 

وفي حاشية الطحطاوى على مراقي الفلاح

لكن لا يحل قتل ما لا يؤذى وقالوا لا يحل قتل الكلب الأهلي إذا لم يؤذ والأمر بقتل الكلاب منسوخ (ص 744 دار الكتب العلمية

 

وكذا في أحسن الفتاوى ج 8 ص 185

 

[vi] شرح مسلم للنووي

وَاخْتَلَفَ الْعُلَمَاءُ فِي سَبَبِ نُقْصَانِ الْأَجْرِ بِاقْتِنَاءِ الْكَلْبِ فَقِيلَ لِامْتِنَاعِ الْمَلَائِكَةِ مِنْ دُخُولِ بَيْتِهِ بِسَبَبِهِ وَقِيلَ لِمَا يَلْحَقُ الْمَارِّينَ مِنَ الْأَذَى مِنْ تَرْوِيعِ الْكَلْبِ لَهُمْ وَقَصْدِهِ إِيَّاهُمْ وَقِيلَ إِنَّ ذَلِكَ عُقُوبَةٌ لَهُ لِاتِّخَاذِهِ مَا نُهِيَ عَنِ اتِّخَاذِهِ وَعِصْيَانِهِ فِي ذَلِكَ وَقِيلَ لِمَا يُبْتَلَى بِهِ مِنْ وُلُوغِهِ فِي غَفْلَةِ صَاحِبِهِ وَلَا يَغْسِلُهُ (ج 5 ص 471 دار ابن رجب

 

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