I just wanted to know the ruling for paid surveys in Islam where a person is able to earn money for each survey he completes Jazakallah khair [Question Published as Received]
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
The Fiqh of the Answer
Imām Sughdī (d.461 AH) in his Nutaf al-Fatawa states that in order for an Ijārah contract to be considered valid, two key elements must be clearly defined: payment and work.
Ijārah is a type of contract in which one party agrees to provide the use of an asset or service to another party in exchange for a specified payment. The first element, payment, refers to the amount and timing of payments that the party receiving the use of the asset or service will need to make to the party providing it. This could include a one-time payment or a series of payments over a specified period of time. The second element, work, refers to the nature and scope of the asset or service being provided. It is important for both parties to clearly understand what is being provided and what is expected in return. This could include the use of a physical asset, such as a building or vehicle, or the provision of a service, such as consulting or maintenance.
In addition to the two requirements mentioned above, it is essential to ensure that the service being provided through the Ijārah contract is not considered haram or prohibited. This means that the nature of the work being provided should not involve engaging in any activity that is inherently impermissible or violates Shar’ī principles.
An unlawful service is not a service in Shari’ah, as it violates the law; An illegal service does not result in legal value and legally recognised rights. Therefore, an illegal contract where the service is unlawful does not result in a valid Ijārah, and no fees can be demanded from an unlawful Ijārah, as no recognised or acceptable service was delivered.
And Almighty Allah Alone Knows Best
Maulana Ammar Y Badat
Reviewed and approved by
Mufti Faraz Adam
Darul Iftaa Muadh ibn Jabal
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وَاعْلَم ان صِحَة الاجارة مُتَعَلقَة بشيئين: اعلام الاجر واعلام الْعَمَل. فاذا كَانَ احدهما مَجْهُولا فالاجارة فَاسِدَة لما روى عَن النَّبِي عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاة وَالسَّلَام انه قَالَ: من اسْتَأْجر اجيرا فليعلمه اجره (النتف في الفتاوى للسغدي)
والمنافع تارة تصير معلومة بالمدة كاستئجار الدور للسكنى والأرضين للزراعة فيصح العقد على مدة معلومة أي مدة كانت وتارة تصير معلومة بالعمل والتسمية كمن استأجر رجلا على صبغ ثوب أو خياطته أو استأجر دابة ليحمل عليها مقدارا معلوما أو يركبها مسافة سماها وتارة تصير معلومة بالتعيين والإشارة كمن استأجر رجلا لينقل له هذا الطعام إلى موضع معلوم )مختصر القدوري(
(قَوْلُهُ: وَهِيَ قَوْلُهُ: – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «أَعْطُوا الْأَجِيرَ أَجْرَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَجِفَّ عَرَقُهُ» ) قَالَ الشُّرَّاحُ: فَإِنَّ الْأَمْرَ بِإِعْطَاءِ الْأَجْرِ دَلِيلٌ عَلَى صِحَّتِهِ.
وَنَوْعٌ تَصِيرُ الْمَنْفَعَةُ فِيهِ مَعْلُومَةً بِالتَّعْيِينِ، وَالْإِشَارَةِ كَاسْتِئْجَارِ رَجُلٍ لِيَنْقُلَ هَذَا الطَّعَامَ إلَى مَوْضِعٍ مَعْلُومٍ. وَهَذِهِ الْأَنْوَاعُ الثَّلَاثَةُ هِيَ الَّتِي أُشِيرَ إلَيْهَا فِي الْكِتَابِ بِقَوْلِهِ، وَالْمَنَافِعُ تَارَةً تَصِيرُ مَعْلُومَةً بِالْمُدَّةِ وَتَارَةً تَصِيرُ مَعْلُومَةً بِالتَّسْمِيَةِ، وَتَارَةً تَصِيرُ مَعْلُومَةً بِالتَّعْيِينِ. (قتح القدير لابن الهمام)