I just wanted to know the ruling for paid surveys in Islam where a person is able to earn money for each survey he completes Jazakallah khair [Question Published as Received]
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful
The Fiqh of the Answer
Imām Sughdī (d.461 AH) in his Nutaf al-Fatawa states that in order for an Ijārah contract to be considered valid, two key elements must be clearly defined: payment and work.
Ijārah is a type of contract in which one party agrees to provide the use of an asset or service to another party in exchange for a specified payment. The first element, payment, refers to the amount and timing of payments that the party receiving the use of the asset or service will need to make to the party providing it. This could include a one-time payment or a series of payments over a specified period of time. The second element, work, refers to the nature and scope of the asset or service being provided. It is important for both parties to clearly understand what is being provided and what is expected in return. This could include the use of a physical asset, such as a building or vehicle, or the provision of a service, such as consulting or maintenance.
In addition to the two requirements mentioned above, it is essential to ensure that the service being provided through the Ijārah contract is not considered haram or prohibited. This means that the nature of the work being provided should not involve engaging in any activity that is inherently impermissible or violates Shar’ī principles.
An unlawful service is not a service in Shari’ah, as it violates the law; An illegal service does not result in legal value and legally recognised rights. Therefore, an illegal contract where the service is unlawful does not result in a valid Ijārah, and no fees can be demanded from an unlawful Ijārah, as no recognised or acceptable service was delivered.
And Almighty Allah Alone Knows Best
Maulana Ammar Y Badat
The views and opinions expressed in this answer belong only to the author and do not in any way represent or reflect the views of any institutions to which he may be affiliated.
Arguments and ideas propounded in this answer are based on the juristic interpretations and reasoning of the author. Given that contemporary issues and interpretations of contemporary issues are subjective in nature, another Mufti may reach different conclusions to the one expressed by the author. Whilst every effort has been taken to ensure total accuracy and soundness from a Shari’ah perspective, the author is open to any correction or juristic guidance. On the event of any juristic shortcomings, the author will retract any or all of the conclusions expressed within this answer.
The Shari’ah ruling given herein is based specifically on the scenario in question. The author bears no responsibility towards any party that acts or does not act on this answer and is exempted from any and all forms of loss or damage. This answer may not be used as evidence in any court of law without prior written consent from the author. Consideration is only given and is restricted to the specific links provided; the author does not endorse nor approve of any other content the website may contain.
وَاعْلَم ان صِحَة الاجارة مُتَعَلقَة بشيئين: اعلام الاجر واعلام الْعَمَل. فاذا كَانَ احدهما مَجْهُولا فالاجارة فَاسِدَة لما روى عَن النَّبِي عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاة وَالسَّلَام انه قَالَ: من اسْتَأْجر اجيرا فليعلمه اجره (النتف في الفتاوى للسغدي)
والمنافع تارة تصير معلومة بالمدة كاستئجار الدور للسكنى والأرضين للزراعة فيصح العقد على مدة معلومة أي مدة كانت وتارة تصير معلومة بالعمل والتسمية كمن استأجر رجلا على صبغ ثوب أو خياطته أو استأجر دابة ليحمل عليها مقدارا معلوما أو يركبها مسافة سماها وتارة تصير معلومة بالتعيين والإشارة كمن استأجر رجلا لينقل له هذا الطعام إلى موضع معلوم )مختصر القدوري(
(قَوْلُهُ: وَهِيَ قَوْلُهُ: – عَلَيْهِ الصَّلَاةُ وَالسَّلَامُ – «أَعْطُوا الْأَجِيرَ أَجْرَهُ قَبْلَ أَنْ يَجِفَّ عَرَقُهُ» ) قَالَ الشُّرَّاحُ: فَإِنَّ الْأَمْرَ بِإِعْطَاءِ الْأَجْرِ دَلِيلٌ عَلَى صِحَّتِهِ.
وَنَوْعٌ تَصِيرُ الْمَنْفَعَةُ فِيهِ مَعْلُومَةً بِالتَّعْيِينِ، وَالْإِشَارَةِ كَاسْتِئْجَارِ رَجُلٍ لِيَنْقُلَ هَذَا الطَّعَامَ إلَى مَوْضِعٍ مَعْلُومٍ. وَهَذِهِ الْأَنْوَاعُ الثَّلَاثَةُ هِيَ الَّتِي أُشِيرَ إلَيْهَا فِي الْكِتَابِ بِقَوْلِهِ، وَالْمَنَافِعُ تَارَةً تَصِيرُ مَعْلُومَةً بِالْمُدَّةِ وَتَارَةً تَصِيرُ مَعْلُومَةً بِالتَّسْمِيَةِ، وَتَارَةً تَصِيرُ مَعْلُومَةً بِالتَّعْيِينِ. (قتح القدير لابن الهمام)