Assalamu Alaikum wa rahmathathullahi wa barakathahu.
If the husband writes a single talaq with the intention of divorcing his wife and sends by post to the wife. The wife does not accept the post and is returned back. After about 4-5 months she comes to know
that, her husband had sent a divorce letter to her. Its almost about 10 months after the wife coming to know about the divorce, she refuses to accept the talaq.
a) Has the Talaq taken place.
b) If yes, can wife reject the talaq.
c) Can they again join back as husband and wife, and how?


In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

As-salāmu ‘alaykum wa-rahmatullāhi wa-barakātuh.

Majority of talāq cases today are a result of sub standard education and frustration.  The husband and wife did not educate themselves with regards to marriage and divorce.  People are getting married not knowing the implications of a nikāh and the rights of one another.  Talāq is being fired without understanding the damage it causes.  Marriages are not being maintained correctly.  Today’s couples are failing in fulfilling the rights of one another.  This causes frustration in both spouses.
Talāq today has taken the face of a weapon which the husband has at his disposal.  Whenever the frustration in the husband hits it’s peak, the wife is threatened with the weapon of talāq.  Over petty and trivial issues, the weapon of talāq is unsheathed.  Likewise, for the wife, when her frustration exceeds all bounds, she launches threats.
It is compulsory for the husband and wife to learn about marriage and divorce before entering into the contract of nikāh.
Talāq can take effect verbally and scripturally.[i] In the question in reference, the moment the talāq was written, the talāq materialised and the wife was divorced from that moment in time.  For the talāq to transpire, it is not a condition that the wife receives the letter or even acknowledges the talāq.[ii] The wife has no prerogative to reject the talāq.
Furthermore, the woman in reference does not have to sit in the iddah (waiting period) after she found out after four months.  Her waiting period has already expired.  The waiting period starts from the moment the talāq is issued.
If the man and woman who were previously married wish to get back together again, they must perform a new nikāh.

And Allah Ta’āla Knows Best

[i] وفي الفتاوى الهندية

الْكِتَابَةُ على نَوْعَيْنِ مَرْسُومَةٌ وَغَيْرُ مَرْسُومَةٍ وَنَعْنِي بِالْمَرْسُومَةِ أَنْ يَكُونَ مُصَدَّرًا وَمُعَنْوَنًا مِثْلُ ما يُكْتَبُ إلَى الْغَائِبِ وَغَيْرُ مَوْسُومَةٍ أَنْ لَا يَكُونَ مُصَدَّرًا وَمُعَنْوَنًا وهو على وَجْهَيْنِ مُسْتَبِينَةٌ وَغَيْرُ مُسْتَبِينَةٍ فَالْمُسْتَبِينَةُ ما يُكْتَبُ على الصَّحِيفَةِ وَالْحَائِطِ وَالْأَرْضِ على وَجْهٍ يُمْكِنُ فَهْمُهُ وَقِرَاءَتُهُ وَغَيْرُ الْمُسْتَبِينَةِ ما يُكْتَبُ على الْهَوَاءِ وَالْمَاءِ وَشَيْءٍ لَا يُمْكِنُ فَهْمُهُ وَقِرَاءَتُهُ فَفِي غَيْرِ الْمُسْتَبِينَةِ لَا يَقَعُ الطَّلَاقُ وَإِنْ نَوَى وَإِنْ كانت مُسْتَبِينَةً لَكِنَّهَا غَيْرُ مَرْسُومَةٍ إنْ نَوَى الطَّلَاقَ يَقَعُ وَإِلَّا فَلَا وَإِنْ كانت مَرْسُومَةً يَقَعُ الطَّلَاقُ نَوَى أو لم يَنْوِ (ج 1 ص 378 مكتبة رشيدية)

[ii] كذا في فتاوى رحيمية ج 8 ص 309 دار الإشاعت